Introduction

The evolution of the species is the history of all biological processes that have being happening in the planet since the appearance of life until today. This story is about a series strategies that have been solved all kind of problems. Support high pressures to hunt and eat, run faster than potential predators, learn and generalize from the environment, develop coordinate behaviors to react efficient against threats. Nature have been evolved strong and aerodynamic shapes to resist high pressure and very lightweight structures to allow the flight. It is possible to find examples in any field, scale and society. Certainly, nature have been evolved into a rich biodiversity of species and environments. All of them related to each other.

Design 4 ecosystems

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms and nonliving components interacting as a system exchanging nutrients and energy. The ecosystem works as a network of interactions in all directions and scales. The DNA modifies the environment and the environment modifies the DNA. For example a city is part of a bigger ecosystem which could be a region or a country. The network of interactions is among persons, and the persons interact with the services, such as transport, energy, buildings, etc. The interaction defines how the ecosystem performs. The city is not isolated, interact with other ecosystems and with production areas to exchange nutrients and energy. An ecosystem is a complex network of interactions, which is impossible to understand as a whole for a human brain. Nevertheless human is the specie that has most modified the planet earth, without a real understanding of what a ecosystem is. The lack of knowledge have bring a series of crisis with massive impact in humans and environments.

Human evolution have done many advances. For example, Charles Darwin in 1859 proposed the natural selection theory. Which states that environments can support or disadvantage the reproduction of some organisms based on their characteristics. Organisms inherit part of their characteristics and properties that determine their adaptation in the environment. Therefore, the least suitable organisms have fewer options to survive than most. In the 60s this theory was translated to mathematics. Each shape in nature is an expression of codified information, which under certain rules builds the form. However, the final expression depends in the interaction between the organisms and the environment. This process involves production, crossover, mutation and evaluation, which determine the interactive factor with the environment and with other living organisms. If the shape succeed or disappear is the code who really does. Not the shape itself. This idea is the base for Genetic Algorithms, and other similar concepts for Neural Networks. Design for ecosystems is about to use these concepts to design, purpose, understand and simulate new human responsible ecosystems.


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